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Summary of the Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells



Size
small, mean diameter 0.5 - 5 μm
Up to 40 μm common

Genetic material
Circular DNA in cytoplasm
DNA associated with proteins to form a chromosome, found within a nucleus

Organelles
Few present and none surrounded by a plasma membrane
Many organelles; Some with double membranes e.g. nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Many with a single membrane e.g. golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes

Cell Walls
Rigid formed from glycoproteins (mainly murein)
Fungi: Rigid, formed from polysaccharide chitin Plants: Rigid, formed from polysaccharide cellulose



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