A level Biology exam revision resources written by A level Examiners


Food Supply - Poor food supply causes malnutrition and fertility drops. Where agriculture is not well established the food supply can be uncertain.

Sewage Disposal & Drinking Water are linked therefore waterborne disease affects death rate (cholera is a bacterial disease and a common waterborne disease).

  • Urbanisation without sanitation lowers life expectancy.
  • Vaccination increases life expectancy.
  • Prosperity increases life expectancy (better nutrition and healthcare).
  • Increased levels of sanitation increases life expectancy.

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