A level Biology exam revision resources written by A level Examiners


This is where organisms defend an area, either on their own, or as a mating pair (or as a troop in the case of baboons). The benefits of a territory include;

  • Maintaining a food source.
  • Defending a nesting site.
  • Attracting a mate.

In establishing breeding partners, and defending territories, members of the same species rarely fight. Instead they take part in stylised aggressive behaviour, that is aimed at avoiding the need to fight. These behaviours usually allow the individuals to determine the likely outcome of fighting, through displays and intimidating behaviours.

This is because fights lead to:

  • Risk of Injury.
  • Expenditure of energy.

Normally actual fighting between members of the same species is reserved to conflicts when the outcome is not clear.

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